trigeminal neuralgia cause


trigeminal neuralgia cause

Some of the important causes of Trigeminal Neuralgia.

Compression from near-by blood vessels 

The majority of TN cases occur due to compression of the trigeminal nerve by one or more arteries and/or veins. Large or small blood vessels can grow over, wrap themselves around, or combine to squeeze the nerve. Constant irritation to the nerve can also occur from the pulsating action of blood vessels. The exact mechanism of how or why blood vessels end up pressing against the trigeminal nerve is not understood sometimes in idiopathic pathology.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) 

MS is a Neurodegenerative and inflammatory condition that causes the breakdown of the Myelin sheath around the nerves. This loss of Protective coating around the Trigeminal nerve can cause irritability to the nerve, resulting in TN as potentially an early symptom of MS.

Tumours and cysts 

Tumours such as Meningiomas and Neuromas in the brain can either compress the trigeminal nerve directly or push blood vessels against the nerve causing TN.

Blood vessel abnormalities 

Aneurysms (weak blood vessels with a bulge) and arteriovenous malformations (abnormal blood vessels that grow randomly) in the brain can cause compression and injury to the trigeminal nerve’s myelin sheath, resulting in in in an. these are life-threatening abnormalities and require immediate medical attention.


Like many other neurological disorders, viruses may be a cause of TN. But very less in virulence.

Other causes 

Abnormally thickened Arachnoid tissue layer of the Brain, Trauma, and Nutritional deficiencies may cause damage to the trigeminal nerve resulting in TN. Inflammatory conditions such as Sarcoidosis and Lyme disease or vascular diseases such as Scleroderma and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus may also cause TN. Certain dental procedures or fillings may trigger an already developing TN to suddenly become fully noticeable.

Unknown cause 

When the cause of TN cannot be identified by clinical or diagnostic tests, it is called idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia, meaning there is no identifiable cause.

Atypical TN is presumed to be caused by tumours or cysts. Typical TN with symptoms on both sides of the face is also believed to commonly have a cancerous origin.